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Fundamental legal problems of surrogate motherhood. Global perspective

Sous la direction de Piotr Mostowik

Présentation de l'éditeur

The observation that mater semper certa est remains accurate under most legal systems in the world. Maternity is defined as the personal status (filiation) of a woman who gave birth to a child. It is typically complemented by the fatherhood of the man from whom the child biologically originates (often quem nuptiae demonstrant). However, in some states, a kind of competitive way of acquiring the legal status of mother and father (or “homosexual parents A and B”) has been introduced via concluding a contract with a surrogate mother. Usually with a woman coming from poorer societies and with the assistance of professional intermediaries and organizers. The postulates to change substantive family law, or at least to recognize the effects of foreign law and procedures (a kind of “procreative tourism”), appear nowadays also in states generally prohibiting surrogate motherhood.

The issues discussed in the present volume concern both national law and international court cases. Recent examples include the opinion of the European Court of Human Rights of 10 April 2019 initiated by the French Cour de cassation, the judgement of the German Bundesgerichtshof of 20 March 2019, and dilemmas of Polish administrative courts.

Focusing on the international perspective, the present volume as well as an accompanying book in Polish are the results of the international cooperation of over 30 experts from both member states and observer states of the Council of Europe. The monograph is structured “from the general to the detail” and includes a comprehensive view as well: from the issues of philosophy and sociology of law, to human rights standards of national constitutions and international agreements, to principles of ordre public of forum and their protection with measures of private, public, and penal law. This allows readers, including legislators and judges, the better understanding of the fundamental legal problems that surrogate motherhood brings, both in states where law creates them in a narrower or wider extent, and in other countries of the world, to which these problems can be imported with the movement of people and with de lege lata and de lege ferenda postulates.



Editorial, p. 29

Piotr Mostowik, “May you live in interesting times.” General remarks, p. 33


Chapter I. Philosophy, sociology, and theory of law

Marta Soniewicka, Ethical and philosophical issues arising from surrogate motherhood, p. 45

Nathalie Baillon-Wirtz, Surrogate motherhood in France: ethical and legal issues, p. 99

Mirosław Boruta, Surrogate motherhood from the perspective of sociology and cultural anthropology, p. 133

Justyna Holocher, Surrogate motherhood – terminological considerations. Three perspectives: theory and philosophy of law, legal doctrine, and public debate, p. 163

Błażej Kmieciak, The phenomenon called “surrogate motherhood” and the sociological approach – current (casuistic) and future (general) perspectives, p. 171

Ewa Kozerska, Tomasz Scheffler, The lawfulness of the institution of surrogate motherhood from the standpoint of political and legal doctrines, p. 203


Chapter II. Filiation as a result of surrogacy contract: (non)acceptance under internal law and (non)recognition of foreign law

Katažyna Mikša, Natalja Žitkevitš, Surrogate motherhood in the Baltic states, p. 239

Avishalom Westreich (וסטרייך אבישלום ר”ד), Surrogacy and egg donation in Israel: legal arrangements, difficulties, and challenges, p. 269

Andrea Nicolussi, The ban on surrogate motherhood in Italy and the challenge of unlimited regulatory competition, p. 291

Andrei A. Novikov (Андрей Новиков), Surrogate motherhood in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: legislation, jurisprudence, and political discussion, p. 321

Carlos Martínez de Aguirre, Surrogate motherhood in Spanish and Latin American law: the law and the loophole, p. 367

Monika Wałachowska, Surrogate motherhood under different laws and federal issues – the case of the USA, p. 399

Alla Anatoliivna Herts (Алла Анатоліївна Герц), Surrogate motherhood in Ukraine: method of infertility treatment, judges’ activism and doctrine, p. 421


Chapter III. National and international standards of human dignity, maternity, paternity, and childhood

Carlos Martínez de Aguirre, International surrogacy arrangements: a global “Handmaid’s Tale”?, p. 451

Witold Borysiak, Motherhood under domestic constitutional principles (at the example of the 1997 Polish Constitution), p. 487

Agnieszka Czubik, Protection of women’s rights and health in international law versus “surrogacy business”, p. 509

Łukasz Mirocha, Dark side of diversity. Actions undertaken in the system of the Council of Europe with regard to the issue of surrogate motherhood, p. 527

Agata Niżnik-Mucha, Aleksandra Dębowska, Maternity and paternity in Constitutional Tribunal cases – judgments and obiter dicta, p. 559

Marcin Sokołowski, Surrogate motherhood in legal and political activities of the institutions of the European Union, p. 589

Agnieszka Wedeł-Domaradzka, Surrogacy – a solution that brings new problems. International organizations and surrogate motherhood, p. 607


Chapter IV. Foundations of family law versus surrogate motherhood

Olga Bobrzyńska, Surrogate motherhood: current trends and the comparative perspective, p. 645

Dita Frintová, Ondřej Frinta, Surrogacy from the Czech perspective: “past the point of no return”, p. 659

Janusz Gajda, Rafał Łukasiewicz, Principles of adoption system versus surrogate motherhood, p. 709

Elena Júdová, Martin Píry, Surrogacy motherhood in the Slovak Republic – an illegal immigrant?, p. 753

Wojciech Lis, Surrogate birth in light of the fundamental principles of family law, p. 797

Piotr Telusiewicz, Foreign surrogate motherhood procedures versus legal principles regarding the origin of the child (filiation), p. 815

Michał Wojewoda, Surrogate motherhood and the civil status registration in Poland, p. 829


Chapter V. Protection of ordre public of forum in internal and cross-border situations

Edyta Figura-Góralczyk, Remarks about Judgement of Bundesgerichtshof of 20 March 2019 (XII ZB 530/17), p. 857

Radosław Flejszar, Selected issues of civil proceedings concerning personal and financial aspects of surrogate motherhood, p. 867

Piotr Rodziewicz, International surrogacy – conflict-of-laws and procedural issues of judicial cooperation in civil matters, p. 899

Konrad Burdziak, Łukasz Pohl, Remarks on Polish penal law and de lege ferenda postulates, p. 935

Wojciech Górowski, Surrogate motherhood in Polish criminal law – de lege lata, p. 945

Agnieszka Laber, International police cooperation against child trafficking and illegal adoption, p. 955

Dominik Zając, International criminal law aspects of surrogate motherhood, p. 969

1050 pages.  71 zł

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